№1' 2021


Government Institution "L. T. Malaya Therapy National Institute of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Ukraine
Premature aging indices in patients with moderate cardiovascular risk
5 - 9
Aging is characterized with a gradual aggravation of organ function throughout life and can occur both physiologically and prematurely. With premature aging there is an early decrease in the adaptive mechanisms of all physiological systems of the body, there is a significant reduction in physical and mental activities, that contributes to the early development of age−related pathology. Genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as environmental ones can be the causes of different rates of aging. It is not possible to accurately determine the onset of old age by biological characteristics, because people with the same calendar age are not always the same as for biological one. To establish the association of age−related disease factors with the markers of premature aging and biological age in the patients of various age groups, a study was performed in the patients aged 25−44 and 45−59 years with moderate cardiovascular risk in accordance with the SCORE scale. The primary task for predicting and preventing the age−associated diseases is to identify genetic, molecular and cellular factors that determine the rate of aging and increase the risk of age−associated diseases. The role of cardiovascular risk factors in premature aging has been determined. It is established that the most important factors that lead to an increase in biological age and formation of age−associated diseases are the disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and level of oxidative stress, importance of which progresses with age. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and biological age, estimated with different methods, their influence on telomere length, that allows the designing of an algorithm to determine the markers of premature aging in different age groups for early and effective prevention of metabolic−associated diseases, has been established.
Key words: biological age, cardiovascular risk, premature aging, telomere length.
Government Institution "L. T. Malaya Therapy National Institute of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Ukraine
Formation, assessment and correction of cognitive disorders in patients with comorbid chronic obstructive pulmonary and coronary heart diseases
10 - 18
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an important health, social and economic issue. It is one of the leading morbidity and mortality causes worldwide. Comorbid pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary and coronary heart diseases occurs quite often. For the patients over 60 years, the frequency of their combination directly depends on age due to common pathogenetic mechanisms (oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation, etc.). Often these diseases are accompanied with cognitive disorders. Impaired memory and other cognitive functions significantly reduce the quality of life of the patients, negatively affect professional activities, reduce the ability to learn, reduce compliance with therapy, complicate psychological contact with the physician, and worsen the lives of relatives. But there is still no common clear understanding of many aspects of the development of cognitive disorders, their mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with coronary heart disease. Therefore, there is no single standard method to treat such patients. In addition to medications (vasoactive and neurotropic drugs), alternative methods are used to treat cognitive disorders, namely these are special exercises to train memory and attention (cognitive training). Methods aimed at increasing the patient's motivation, learning effective memorization strategies, training the ability to maintain a long−term concentration, active involvement of emotional support and imagination are relevant. The use of available non−drug methods, dosed exercise and proper nutrition can reduce the severity of cognitive disorders and thereby improve the quality of life of the patients and their immediate environment.
Key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, comorbidity, cognitive disorders
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine
Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus who require implantation of permanent pacemaker
18 - 22
In recent decades, there has been a rise of chronic heart failure mortality. Among the huge range of modern methods of this pathology treatment, the cardioresynchronizing therapy stands out, it allows the improvement of the patient's heart function, reduces clinical signs of the disease, improves well−being, as well as diminishes morbidity and mortality. The use of this method in the patients with a comorbid pathology, i.e. in those with chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes, deserves a special attention. In order to determine the clinical characteristics of the patients who required a pacemaker implantation, we examined 203 patients who had reasonable indications for this in accordance with the ACC / ANA and ESC current recommendations. Another important criterion for inclusion into the group of implantation was considered to be the presence of comorbid Diabetes mellitus type 2. The gender and age characteristics of the surveyed population were dominated by elderly male patients. The presence of concomitant cardiovascular pathology depending on the age of patients was analyzed, which showed mostly hypertension of stage 2−3, a constant atrial fibrillation. In structure of comorbid pathology the somatic diseases, including type 2 Diabetes mellitus prevailed. Electrostimulators were implanted into the examined cohort of patients, among which 132 devices worked in DDD mode, 71 of the installed stimulators had the DDDR mode. The research results concluded that the implantation of a pacemaker became a necessary procedure for elderly patients, mostly men, with a high prevalence of cardiovascular (coronary heart disease, hypertension, persistent atrial fibrillation) and somatic pathology in the form of type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Key words: chronic heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pacemaker implantation, clinical features, gender and age characteristics.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
Mechnikov Institute of Microbiology and Immunology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Evaluation of microbiocenosis of large intestine and intestinal permeability in obese adolescents
23 - 26
Obesity is one of the most common non−infectious diseases worldwide among both adults and children. It is associated with the development of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, non−alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease etc. The mechanisms proposed to explain the development and progression of obesity include chronic low−intensity inflammation, bacterial translocation, and endotoxemia, which may resulted from dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability. To study anthropometric parameters, levels of zonulin, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin−6 and interleukin−10, indices of the colon microbiota, 74 adolescents with obesity aged 12−17 years were examined. The correlation analysis of anthropometric and laboratory indices, between anthropometric ones and those of microflora of a large intestine depending on sex was performed. It is noted that obesity is accompanied by the formation of intestinal dysbiosis in 78.2 % of patients with a decrease in the obligate microflora and an increase in the conditionally pathogenic microflora. In adolescent patients, a significant rise in interleukin−6 levels and a tendency to increase interleukin−10 levels compared with adolescents with normal weight, which is a sign of low−intensity inflammation. There was a significant increase in zonulin levels in obese adolescents compared with those in the control group, that may be an evidence of increased intestinal permeability. Positive correlations have been reported between the body weight, abdominal fat distribution, and increased intestinal permeability as well as activation of low−intensity inflammation. In obese adolescents, in the presence of dysbiotic disorders, it is advisable to harmonize the diet and style and correct intestinal dysbiosis with the intestinal barrier restoration of.
Key words: zonulin, lipopolysaccharide, interleukins, microbiota, adolescents, obesity.
MI "Dnipropetrovsk Regional Children's Clinical Hospital" DRC, Dnipro, Ukraine
State of systemic hemodynamics for children with congenital surgical pathology in different combined anesthesia types
27 - 30
General anesthesia for a surgical correction of congenital malformations in children is accompanied, in particular, by the disorders of systemic hemodynamics. In order to assess the impact of different types of combined anesthesia on the state of systemic hemodynamics in surgical correction of congenital malformations, a retrospective study of the treatment of 150 newborns and infants was conducted. These were children with various congenital malformations, but the most common were intestinal obstruction and abdominal tumors. Three groups of patients were formed depending on the type of combined anesthesia during surgical correction of abnormalities: I − inhalation (sevorane) + regional anesthesia; II − inhalation (sevorane) + intravenous anesthesia (fentanyl); III − total intravenous anesthesia with two drugs: analgesic (fentanyl) and drug sleep on the background of intravenous injection of hypnotics (20 % sodium oxybutyrate). There were preformed the surgeries: thoracic, urological, abdominal. The study was retrospectively evaluated in five stages. The analysis of systemic hemodynamics showed a tendency to reduce diastolic blood pressure in children treated with anesthesia with two intravenous drugs (hypnotic and fentanyl), during all observation stages and a significant decrease in this index at the most painful and traumatic period. At the time of induction of anesthesia in children there was a decrease in heart rate. According to the research results, it is concluded that when using the pre−hypnotics as part of combined anesthesia in children with congenital malformations during surgery there is a risk of complications from central hemodynamics in the form of vasodilation, which leads to a drop in blood pressure and increases compensatively the heart contractions.
Key words: infants, congenital malformations, anesthesia, hemodynamics.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Ways to improve diagnosis of patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome
31 - 35
Postcholecystectomy syndrome is a symptom complex that occurs or worsens after cholecystectomy and is a functional and / or organic disorder. It often complicates the post−surgery course of gallstone disease. The presence of symptoms of the disease indicates a deterioration in the quality of life of patients, but the diagnostic examination is not always possible to detect morphological or functional changes. Thus, at present the syndrome is an urgent problem of gastroenterology and biliary surgery. Diagnostic issues with a differentiated approach to the functional or organic nature of postcholecystectomy syndrome are important for the choice of further treatment tactics. In order to improve the diagnostic algorithm taking into account the changes in the area of the major duodenal papilla, a study was conducted in 137 patients. To determine the functional disorders of the sphincter of Oddi there was used the method of ultrasound investigation of hepatobiliary area and Vater's papilla with choleretic loading on Boyden as well as the Grigoriev's methods in the absence of organic obstruction of the terminal choledochus at previous stages of examination. Morphological changes in the major duodenal papilla area were evaluated using the technique of parietal ph−impedancemetry, which was performed on the background of benign mechanical jaundice in the patients after cholecystectomy during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography prior to endoscopic papillosphincterotomy. The obtained results help to perform a differentiated approach to the patients who underwent cholecystectomy, taking into account morphofunctional changes in the area of the major duodenal papilla and allow the implementation of the selected methods to the research algorithm of patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome.
Key words: postcholecystectomy syndrome, functional and organic changes of major duodenal papilla, patency of the terminal choledochus, treatment tactics.
V. T. Zaitsev Institute of General and Emergency Surgery, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
V. K. Gusak Institute of Emergency and Reconstructive Surgery, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Influence of mesenchymal stem cells on efficiency of angiogenesis, state of vascular tone, intensity of lipid peroxidation and metabolic activity of cardiomyocytes in experimental myocardial infarction
35 - 42
In contrast to medical and surgical methods of treatment of coronary heart disease and its complications, cellular cardiomyoplasty is aimed at creating new cells and stable lineages of normally functioning heart tissue. Autologous mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells are a promising source for such cardiomyoplasty. To study the effect of stem cell myocardial transplantation on the processes of its post−infarction state, acute myocardial infarction in laboratory rats was experimentally modeled with subsequent transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow and comparative study in blood serum of cardiovyocytes metabolic activity markers, neoangiogenesis, vessel tonus as well as myocardial lipid peroxidation. The cells were intravenously injected into the necrotized myocardium and left ventricle. The study found that regardless of the method of administration, stem cell transplantation contributes to a significant increase in angiogenic factors, i.e. nitrogen oxide and endothelial growth factor, a significant decrease in vasoconstrictor endothelin−1, the level of TBA−active products and haptoglobin, enzyme activity, namely cardiac ischemia markers, increase in ceruloplasmin. All this indicates positive effects: leveling ischemia by improving myocardial perfusion due to compensatory vasodilation, limiting the rate of lipid peroxidation and stimulating antioxidant factors, improving the energy balance of the myocardium by increasing the level of energy substrates and activation of their aerobic pathways. Thus, cellular cardiomyoplasty improves metabolism and prevents the process of post−ischemic myocardial remodeling.
Key words: cardiomyoplasty, mesenchymal stem cells, myocardial infarction, myocardial metabolism.
Kharkiv National Medical University
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Municipal Noncommercial Enterprise of Kharkiv Regional Council "Regional Medical Clinical Center of Urology and Nephrology n.a. V. I. Shapoval", Kharkiv, Ukraine
Factors of perioperative mortality in patients with growing renal cell carcinoma in inferior vena cava lumen
43 - 51
Difficult surgical cases of tumors of the inferior vena cava occur very often, because this intervention is characterized with technical difficulties and severe intraoperative complications. The most dangerous of these include massive bleeding, acute heart failure, and pulmonary embolism by tumor masses, which are the most common causes of perioperative mortality. Vena cava trombectomy is a special operation that can be accompanied by heavy bleeding at virtually any stage. The causes and frequency of mortality in 108 patients operated for renal cell carcinoma with growing to the inferior vena cava were retrospectively analyzed. Reliable factors for the prognosis of perioperative mortality in this pathology have been identified. Factors that characterize the tumor thrombus features, as well as parameters related to general condition of a patient, have been found to be of the greatest importance. The results of the study showed that the level of perioperative mortality in caval tumor thrombi is 8.3 % when using surgical methods without artificial circulation. The presented patient population contained a significant proportion of so−called "high" thrombi of III−IV levels, thrombi invading the wall of the inferior vena cava, as well as retrograde spread of intraluminal tumor. The main causes of death were acute heart failure, intraoperative bleeding, pulmonary embolism with tumor masses and acute renal failure. The prognostic value of perioperative mortality was demonstrated by the following thrombus factors: its "high" level, invasion of intraluminal tumor into the caval wall, signs of complete obstruction of caval blood flow. The mortality rate was objectively affected by severe heart failure, signs of pulmonary embolism before surgery.
Key words: inferior vena cava, tumor thrombus, renal cell carcinoma, vena cava trombectomy, lethality.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Isthmocele: etiology, clinic, diagnosis and treatment (Literature review)
52 - 55
Modern obstetrics is characterized with a loyal approach to surgical delivery, which has significantly affected the activity of maternity hospitals: the number of complications in childbirth from both the mother and fetus has decreased. The formed scar on the uterus is determined differently when examining the women in the postoperative period. Isthmocele is a hypogenic area in the myometrium within the site of postoperative scar in the form of a "niche", diverticulum or sac after cesarean section. It can lead to the development of diseases: abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, infertility, adenomyosis, bladder dysfunction, as well as be the cause of ectopic pregnancy, uterine rupture, abnormalities in the placenta attachment of. Risk factors for isthmocele include low uterine incisions, a history of cervical removal, cervical dilatation of more than 5 cm, more than five hours of delivery, etc. For the first time the diagnosis of "isthmocele" is made at ultrasonic research, more often transvaginal one. The diagnosis is confirmed by hysteroscopy or constructive surgery. An important criterion for ismocele is the degree of deficiency, i.e. the ratio between the the biometry thickness on the scar and adjacent to the scar the myometrium area. Depending on the woman's reproductive plans, conservative or surgical treatment of isthmocele is recommended, using autologous stem cells to regenerate muscle tissue. Conservative treatment involves taking oral contraceptives. Surgical treatment includes the imposition of a two−row single−wing suture. The use of stem cells in the postoperative period allows a rise in the frequency of pregnancies in women with a scar on the uterus in the case of the isthmocele formation.
Key words: isthmocele, cesarean section, myometrium, autocells.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Stages of rehabilitation of patients with acute cerebrovascular accident
56 - 62
One of the urgent tasks of modern medicine is organizing the rehabilitation for patients who have suffered a stroke at different stages of rehabilitation. Restoration of impaired functions in such patients occurs in the first 3−5 months from the onset of the disease, that is influenced by a number of factors: duration of the stroke, size of the lesion and pool of lesions, active participation in the process of a patient him−/herself. The main principles of rehabilitation include its early onset in an acute period of stroke; regularity and duration; complexity and multidisciplinarity (formation of multidisciplinary teams); adequacy of rehabilitation measures, i.e. creation of individual programs taking into account the severity of neurological deficit and dysfunction; stages. Different methods of recovery are applied to each patient individually or in combination, or sequentially according to the rehabilitation program, which is based on the analysis of the patient's condition by all members of the multidisciplinary team, taking into account the results of functional testing and objective examination. Medical support, postural correction, kinesitherapy, mechanotherapy (including robotic), field therapy, hardware physiotherapy, massage, acupuncture according to the indications, functional neurotraining and cardiotraining, neuropsychological training are used. The results of research confirm that the integrated use of kinesitherapy, physical factors, balneotherapy, the methods of psychological rehabilitation of patients after stroke provides a faster recovery of neurological deficit, activates non−specific brain systems, restores mental and somatic functions of the body. Therefore, in addition to health, the patient needs to renew his ability to work and social status.
Key words: acute cerebrovascular accident, medical rehabilitation, stages of rehabilitation.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
Medical Centre "Neiron", Kharkiv, Ukraine
Comparative analysis of neurophysiological features in young women and men suffering from epilepsy
63 - 66
The definition of epilepsy via the concept of neuronal discharge indicates the crucial importance of electroencephalography (EEG) in epileptology. This pathology is a certain problem for each sex, that requires gender−specific approaches when managing and treating such patients. To investigate them, 30 men and 30 women aged 18−44 years with a reliable diagnosis of epilepsy were examined. A comprehensive clinical, neurological and neurophysiological study of patients was performed, taking into account the data of clinical case and life history. Each patient was assessed for neurological status according to traditional methods, electrophysiological method of examination (routine EEG) was used. On the results of electroencephalography in individuals of both sexes with epilepsy, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the α−rhythm, but a significant slowdown in this rhythm was not detected. Most patients had high−amplitude (> 20 μV) and low−frequency β1−rhythm. Low−frequency high−amplitude slow−wave activity was regarded as an EEG reflection of degenerative−dystrophic processes in brain. Photostimulation caused paroxysms of bilaterally synchronous sharp and slow waves, complexes of "acute−slow" wave. Hyperventilation led to an increase in the θ−rhythm amplitude, appearance of δ−waves, higher expression of true epileptiform phenomena: adhesions, "acute wave−slow wave" complexes, "spike−slow wave" complexes. A comparative analysis of the obtained results allowed to conclude that the changes in bioelectrical activity in epilepsy occur according to the general mechanisms of epileptogenesis, regardless of gender.
Key words: epilepsy, electroencephalogram, comparative analysis, young men and women.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Cerebrovascular disorders in patients with COVID−19
67 - 72
COVID−19 is an acute respiratory viral disease caused by the RNA virus of the SARS−CoV−2 (2019 nCoV) coronavirus family and can have both mild course in the form of acute respiratory viral infection and severe one with frequent complications such as pneumonia, thrombosis, cerebrovascular disorders and high mortality. Hypoxia of the brain and spinal cord is associated with impaired gas exchange in the pulmonary alveoli, progressive respiratory failure with subsequent decompensation of function and structural damage to all organs and systems. Neurological disorders in COVID−19, observed in almost a half of patients, can be divided into three groups: manifestations of the central nervous system, lesions of the peripheral nervous system, myopathy. In order to study the lesion of the nervous system in patients with COVID−19, a history of acute cerebrovascular disorders and clinical picture of stroke without the emergence of new foci in neuroimaging, three clinical cases were analyzed. All patients complained of speech impairment, disorientation in time and space, numbness and weakness in the extremities on the background of acute cerebrovascular accident in the anamnesis, accompanied by general weakness and fever to subfebrile figures. COVID−19 pneumonia was observed during computed tomography of the lungs. However, during neuroimaging new foci of infarction were not identified. Thus, given the lack of new foci of infarction during neuroimaging, lack of hypercoagulation and cardiac causes, it can be concluded that focal symptoms in patients with COVID−19 with a history of stroke cause hypoxia of brain cells in the area around the necrotic foci resulted from previous heart attacks.
Key words: nervous system, lesions, COVID-19, coronaviruses, encephalopathy, hypoxia.
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Main issues of children's incidence of acute otitis media and prospects to solve them
73 - 76
The problem of acute otitis media in children is relevant because of the prevalence, social significance, possibility of rapid development of both life−threatening intracranial and intralabyrinthine, mastoid complications, as well as acute or prolonged dysfunction of adjacent cranial nerves, especially auditory, vestibular ones. In order to determine the frequency of various forms of acute otitis media, the nature and extent of its complications in children of different ages there was conducted a retrospective analysis of medical histories of patients treated at the City Clinical Hospital № 30 Kharkiv within 2015−2019. There was stated that the biggest group was composed by the patients with a purulent form of the disease, a slightly smaller number of patients had secretory and viral processes. But when analyzing the data over the years, of interest is the fact that during the period when the number of purulent forms decreased, the number of viral ones increased. Complications include mastoiditis, acute sensorineural hearing loss, cerebrospinal fluid and hypertension and intoxication syndromes. It is important that in acute purulent and viral otitis there is an intoxication syndrome along with the manifestations of acute sensorineural hearing loss. Signs of vestibular dysfunction in children can be disguised as symptoms of intoxication, they are much more difficult to detect. Considering the fact that the snail and the labyrinth are washed by the same liquid, it is logical to assume that in this situation the vestibular analyzer suffers together with the auditory one. Therefore, along with otoneurological research it is necessary to apply instrumental methods for establishment of latent disturbances of function of the vestibular analyzer. According to the research results it was concluded that a more detailed study of vestibular analyzer dysfunction in children with acute otitis media, as they are disguised as symptoms of intoxication.
Key words: acute otitis media, frequency, complications, vestibular disorders, children.
Municipal Non&minus
Profit Enterprise "City Clinical Hospital № 30 of Kharkiv City Council", Kharkiv
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Dacryocystitis as an otolaryngological problem: own treatment experience
76 - 82
The urgency of improving the effectiveness of dacryocystitis treatment is determined by: their stable proportion among eye diseases, a high percentage of post−traumatic, iatrogenic and chronic forms, ability to be a source of dangerous complications and social significance. Existing anatomical and physiological relations and values of rhinogenic factors determine the involvement of otolaryngologists in dacryocystitis treatment. In order to determine the characteristics of the contingent of patients with dacryocystitis, structure of rhinogenic factors, methods of examination, surgical treatment and principles of postoperative management of patients, a study was conducted with 107 patients with chronic disease. The clinical effectiveness in diagnosis and planning of surgical intervention of the combination of endonasal optical rhinoscopy, probing and contrast of the nasolacrimal pathway with triombrast with subsequent radiological and (or) CT examination was determined. It is shown that the correction of endonasal structures should be performed simultaneously with dacryocystorhinostomy. The efficiency of the classical West−Bokstein surgery has been determined, the necessity of an individual approach to its planning has been shown. The main tasks of each stage of the surgery, which significantly affect its outcome, are established. When performed correctly, the effectiveness of "plastic" and "simple" rhinostomy, management of patients with and without stenting is almost the same. It has been proven that the use of radio wave and shaver techniques can greatly simplify the stages of the surgery and improve healing. Based on the obtained results, a conclusion was made about the expediency of involving an otolaryngologist in the consultation of patients with chronic dacryocystitis in each case. The criterion for choosing treatment tactics in favor of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy is the presence of rhinogenic factors of dacryocystitis.
Key words: dacryocystitis, endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, rhinogenic factors, stenting, surgical treatment, epiphora, lacrimation.
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine
Role of adipose tissue and adipokines in chronic inflammation development on metabolic syndrome background
83 - 87
The most pressing issue that combines obesity and insulin resistance is chronic subclinical inflammation, which affects the metabolic and secretory functions of adipose tissue, and is important for the development of pathological processes. The morphological basis of inflammation is the infiltration of adipose tissue by immune competent cells. Biologically active substances specific for adipose tissue are considered to be the collagen−like protein adiponectin and the protein hormone leptin, which are secreted in adipocytes. Leptin stimulates the cellular immune response and increases the production of pro−inflammatory cytokines, and adiponectin is thought to have anti−inflammatory properties. With the development of metabolic syndrome, the concentration of adiponectin in blood decreases, and that of leptin increases. To establish the relationship between serum leptin levels with markers of systemic inflammation and spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines as well as mononuclear blood leukocytes, an experimental study was conducted, i.e. modeling the metabolic syndrome in white female rats WAG / GSto aged 5−6 months. The predominance of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukins − 1β, −6, −8, −10, TNF−α in supernatants of mononuclear leukocytes with increasing leptin concentration, which is consistent with the view of its ability to stimulate cell immunity and affect the production of proinflammatory cytokines. It is proven that an increase in leptin levels in metabolic syndrome is not only a symptom that characterizes the functional state of adipose tissue, but also causes spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines and mononuclear leukocytes in blood, that is pathogenetically interrelated with the systemic inflammatory response. It is established that the change in the cytokine profile in the serum becomes a forecast of the formation and effectiveness of treatment of metabolic syndrome on the background of obesity.
Key words: obesity, metabolic syndrome, undifferentiated chronic inflammation, cytokines.
Poltava Ukrainian Medical and Dental Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
Modern ultrasonography techniques for massive injuries of shoulder joint rotator cuff tendons
88 - 91
Recently the development of medical technologies has led to a significant progress in diagnosis of the shoulder joint diseases. The leading role in this was played by an improvement of such imaging methods as magnetic resonance imaging, high−resolution ultrasound scanning, having an advantage over traditional radiography, as they allow the diagnosis the pathology not only of bone structures but also of soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging has become the main method of visualizing the soft tissue structures of musculoskeletal system, but the high cost of the study, lack of clear and distinct indications for it reduce the number of patients. Ultrasound has proven to be one of the main methods of objective diagnosis in patients with musculoskeletal pathology, and high−frequency sensors can visualize articular cartilage and its structure, tendons of the shoulder rotator cuff and tendons of the long head of the biceps. In order to determine the most significant differential diagnostic criteria for massive rupture of the shoulder rotational cuff with the help of two−dimensional mode, color and energy Doppler mapping and functional ultrasonography, 32 patients operated on this subject were examined. The following ultrasound data were evaluated: homogeneity, echogenicity, integrity of tendon contours, presence of effusion in bursae and tendon sheaths, number of vascular signals in the affected area during color and energy Doppler mapping, if needed − the results of functional tests. Thus, modern ultrasound capabilities allow its use both for primary diagnosis and for monitoring the treatment process, which, in turn, directly affects the choice of treatment.
Key words: shoulder joint, rotator cuff, ultrasound, diagnostics.
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukrainian Institute of Clinical Genetics, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Sonographic markers of association of folate cycle polymorphic genes and epigenetic factors
92 - 100
Reproductive losses in Ukraine are about twice the European average, but have the same causes: miscarriage, abortion, malformations, parental infertility, death of women of childbearing age and children under six days of age. The study focuses on genetically determined reproductive losses associated with folate cycle polymorphism, some other polymorphisms, and epigenetic factors that increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods of systematic and demographic analysis studied the indices of medical and statistical observation of the population of the Kharkiv region within the period of 2008−2018 with an emphasis on the results of biochemical, molecular genetic and sonographic examinations of pregnant women. Data on the number of examined pregnant women were analyzed using ultrasonographic and biochemical studies at the level of alpha−fetoprotein, chorionic gonadotropin and free estriol in the framework of selective screening programs for pregnant women. Statistical data on the number of fetuses and newborns who died during the first − sixth day after birth, with a distribution on the basis of full−term have been studied. The data are compared with similar national indices. The directions of reducing the reproductive losses are offered, including complex inspection of pregnant women with use of ultrasonography, biochemical and molecular−genetic methods of diagnostics of genetic diseases and defects of fetus development. Among the epigenetic factors we have identified obesity and old age of pregnant women, among the types of abortions we did medical abortions associated with stillborn pregnancies, as well as miscarriages. The findings of the study can be used to minimize the effects of risk factors for reproductive loss in the activity of general practitioners.
Key words: polymorphism of folate cycle genes, reproductive losses, miscarriage, congenital malformations of fetus, ultrasonography.
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