PRESSING ISSUES OF MALARIA PREVENTION
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
Two main ways for how antimalarial prophylactic measures are held, i.e. early diagnosis and sanitation of patients with malaria or parasitemia (the most important part of the measures), and the fight against pathogen's vector mosquitos are presented. The aim of malaria prophylaxis is to prevent infecting people and (or) to prevent the disease itself. Therefore, prevention is the destruction of vectors (mosquitoes) and the malarial parasites (Plasmodium). In terms of vector control entomological surveillance is provided in the infection nidus, hydrotechnical measurements, processing mosquito breeding sites by larvicides and processing the facilities by imagicydes. In endemic regions precautions against mosquito bites should be taken. It is important to provide information about the correct individual malarial chemoprophylaxis to the people traveling to endemic areas. As an individual chemoprophylaxis to malaria caused by resistant to chloroquine plasmodium falciparum, Fansidar, atovaquone/proguanil, Malarone, mefloquine and artemisinin are used. Chloroquine is used in nidus whithout chloroquine−resistant P. falciparum. In areas with high infection risk, chloroquine is combined with pyrimethamine. Chloroquine is also used as a chemoprophylaxis to other types of malaria. In some regions Savarin (chloroquine + proguanil) is also used. For the relapse caused by vivax and ovale−parasites, primaquine additionally is administered for 14 weeks. Vaccine prevention is not performed due to the absence of vaccine.
Key words: malaria prevention, mechanical protection, chemical protection, drugs.