International Medical Journal, Vol. 21., Iss. 2, 2015, P. 61−65.
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME AND ACUTE СEREBROVASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN INFANTS
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine
Nowadays, the frequency of acute cerebrovascular diseases among children population ranges from 2.5 to 4.2 cases per 100 thousand. The leading causes of acute cerebral ischemia in children are congenital vascular abnormalities, blood pathology, autoimmune angiopathy, and hereditary metabolic disorders, including antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is considered a unique model of autoimmune thrombotic vasculopathy. Primary, secondary, catastrophic and neonatal APS are allocated. Clinical signs of APS vary and depend on the localization of noninflammatory thrombotic vasculopathy. APS signs in children are thrombocytopenia, migraine, nosebleeds, livedo reticularis, epilepsy, chorea (hyperkinesis), transient ischemic attacks and strokes, ocular neuropathy, sudden hearing loss, and others. The main serological markers of APS are increase of blood antibodies to phospholipids, cardiolipin, the presence of lupus anticoagulant in two or more studies, received with an interval of at least 6 weeks. An important criteria for the diagnosis of APS in children are the presence in relatives of rheumatic diseases; recurrent stroke and/or heart attack (especially before the age of 50 years); recurrent thrombophlebitis; miscarriage, eclampsia and pre−eclampsia. As an example, a clinical case of ischemic stroke against a background of antiphospholipid syndrome in a child aged 10 months was described in this article.
Key words: ischemic stroke, antiphospholipid syndrome, childhood, antiplatelet agents.