International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 3, 2020, P. 45−48.
FEATURES OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF POST-TRAUMATIC NEUROPATHIES AND PLEXOPATHIES RESULTED FROM GUNSHOT AND NON-GUNSHOT INJURIES OF EXTREMITIES
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
Military Medical Clinical Center of the Northern Region, Kharkiv, Ukraine
The number of traumatic injuries to nerve stems and plexuses is steadily increasing in peacetime during armed conflicts and terrorist acts. In wartime, peripheral nerve injuries are much more common, and a great deal of the knowledge about peripheral nerve damage and repair is based on combat experience. The study of the clinical course of post−traumatic neuropathies and plexopathies contributes to the development of clinical and neurological criteria and compensatory−restorative responses in traumatic lesions of the peripheral nervous system, helps to assess the functional significance of various parts of the nervous system when compensating a damaged functional unit. To study the features of clinical manifestations of post−traumatic gunshot and non−gunshot neuropathies and plexopathies, 63 patients underwent clinical and neurological examination with topical and clinical diagnoses, collection of detailed anamnesis and complaints, electroneuromyography and ultrasound examination. Movement disorders, characterized by peripheral paresis or plegia of the corresponding muscle group and accompanied with a reduced or lost tendon and periosteal reflexes, were common. Sensitivity disorders were a combination of prolapse (anesthesia, hypoesthesia) and irritation (paresthesia, hyperpathy, hyperesthesia). Autonomic disorders (vascular, secretory and trophic) in traumatic neuropathies differ depending on the clinical individuality of peripheral nerves. Vascular disorders were more often detected with partial damage to nerve structures and were accompanied by local edema. Of the secretory disorders, the most constant sign of impaired nerve conduction was sweating disorder. In the clinical picture of the pain syndrome, i.e. causalgia, the pain sensations by type of burning dominated. The intensity of the pain syndrome in severe cases was very high, in some cases the pain was exacerbated by irritation of the senses. The clinical picture of causalgia is characterized by an increased pain when warming the injured limb and it reduced when cooled, that is a "symptom of a wet rag." Knowledge of clinical features allows the detection of the peripheral nervous system lesions at the early stages of pathology, performance of dynamic clinical and neurological observation and treatment, timely use of modern additional research methods to address further treatment tactics that restore limb function, improve quality of life.
Key words: post−traumatic neuropathy and plexopathy, peripheral nervous system, gunshot wounds of nerves and plexuses.
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