International Medical Journal, Vol. 22., Iss. 3, 2016, P. 68−71.
CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS OF MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine
Traumatic brain injury is a major health and social problem. At the present stage mild traumatic brain injuries, which account for 80 % of the total number of victims dominate in its structure. Currently mild brain injuries include cerebral concussion and mild brain contusion. To determine the pathogenesis of the damaging cascade and methods improving neuroplasticity and neurotrophicity, the patients with a 1−5 year history of mild brain injury were examined. Focal neurological, asthenic, cephalgic, dissomniac, vegetative, neuroendocrine, vestibular, anxious and depressed, apathetic syndromes and behavioral, mental and emotional disorders were revealed. Psychodiagnostic tests MMSE and MoCa scale revealed disorder of attention, memory, orientation, praxis, gnosis also identified when using the test to memorize 10 words, Schulte tables, proofreading test. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were revealed using Spielberg−Hanin and Beck scales. The analysis of biochemical indices suggested disorders of neuroplasticity processes that manifested by decrease in the content of BDNF and BNGF and simultaneous increase in the serum levels of apoptosis products of protein from subfamilies Bax and Bcl−2 in the blood serum of the patients after mild traumatic brain injury. Such patients should be administered: decongestants, vegetostabilizing, nootropic, antiepileptic drugs, symptomatic therapy, if necessary −− antidepressants, as well as the medicines that improve the neurotrophic (polypeptides), energy, metabolic and neuroplastic functions.
Key words: mild traumatic brain injury, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, neuroplasticity.