ARCHIVEOBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
AQUAPORINS AND THEIR ROLE IN NORMAL AND PRE-ECLAMPSIA PLACENTA
Trakya University, Turkey
Aquaporins (AQP), or water channels, are the family of integral proteins involved in transmembrane transportation of water in the tissues. Some of them, AQP 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, were found in the placenta and membranes of the human fetus. A significant expression of AQP is associated with pathology of fetal amniotic fluid. In pathological conditions such as preecsplampsia characterized by placental ischemia, changes in the functional activity and synthesis of ACP can be a major factor responsible for the changes in energy homeostasis. It is assumed that AQP 1, 3, 8, 9 are involved in regulation of amniotic fluid, the violation of their expression in the fetal membranes is associated with idiopathic polyhydramnion or oligohydramnion. High level of AQP 3 and 9 expression was revealed in the normal placental trophoblasts. Preeclampsia is not a pathology of the fetal water balance, thus increase in AQP 9 expression is due to the additional role of the protein. Molecular and functional AQP 9 expression is influenced by insulin, human chorionic hormone, human gonadotropic hormone, cyclic adenosine phosphate, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, clarifying the role of which is the subject of further research. Special attention should be paid to studying the relationship between pathological conditions of the placenta and AQP expression.
Key words: aquaporins, normal and pre−eclampsia placenta, amniotic fluid, expression of aquaporins.