Previous Next

CURRENT ISSUE

№3' 2020

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 3, 2020, P. 72−79.


DOI (https://doi.org/10.37436/2308-5274-2020-3-14)

CLINIC AND COMPLICATIONS OF COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS DISEASE WITH PATHOGENESIS ELEMENTS


Malyi V. P., Аndrusovich I. V.

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine

The longer the COVID−19 coronavirus pandemic lasts, the more information about its clinical manifestations is accumulated. The incubation period of COVID−19 ranges from 2 to 14 days, rarely up to 3 weeks, but in a significant number of cases an infection is not accompanied with the appearance of clinical symptoms. Currently, the following variants of the clinical course of COVID−19 can be identified as follows: viral load; subclinical; slight; uncomplicated with damage to only the upper respiratory tract; mild pneumonia, severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, etc. The clinical course of COVID−19 depends on the severity, the criteria of which are the intoxication manifestation, the degree of fever and the dominant syndrome. Mild / moderate forms are manifested by frequent increase in body temperature up to 38 ° C, respiratory symptoms, headache, myalgias, palpitations and general malaise. Patients stop distinguishing smells and feel the taste of food. Approximately from the 7th to the 9th days of the disease there are problems with breathing, which indicates the impairment of the lower respiratory tract and the beginning of the second phase of the disease, and its course is regarded as severe. Severe forms of the disease can also be manifested by impaired coordination of movements, slurred speech. In 1 to 4 % of patients there is developed the psychosis in the form of hallucinations. In the elderly, COVID−19 may be accompanied by delirium, lowering blood pressure. The risks of adverse disease are associated with somatic diseases: cardiovascular and nervous systems, respiratory tract, hormonal disorders, etc. Otitis, sinusitis, sepsis, bronchopulmonary infection, thrombosis, myocarditis etc. can be the complications of COVID−19. Computer tomography is an instrumental test that demonstrates the damage of lungs with coronavirus and allows to assess its severity.

Key words: coronavirus infection, COVID−19, clinical variants, severity, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome.


REFERENCES


1. Kamkin E. G. Profilaktika, diagnostika i lechenie novoi koronavirusnoi infektsii (COVID 2019): metod. rek. 2020. № 6. URL: https://static−1.rosminzdrav.ru/system/attachments/attaches/000/050/116/original/28042020_%D0%9CR_COVID−19_v6.pdf

2. Nakaz MOZ Ukraїni vіd 28.03.2020 № 722 "Organіzatsіya nadannya medichnoї dopomogi khvorim na koronovіrusnu khvorobu (COVID−19)" (u redaktsії nakazіv MOZ Ukraїni vіd 09.04.2020 № 827 ta vіd 23.04.2020 № 953): Standarti medichnoї dopomogi "Koronavіrusna khvoroba (COVID−19)". URL: https://dec.gov.ua/mtd/koronavirusna−hvoroba−2019−covid−19

3. Wu Z., McGoogan J. M. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID−19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention // Jama. 2020. № 323 (13). R. 1239−1242. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648.

4. Gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS−CoV−2 infection and virus load in fecal samples from the Hong Kong cohort and systematic review and meta−analysis / K. S. Cheung et al. // Gastroenterology. 2020. pii:S0016−5085(20)30448−0. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03. 065

5. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus−infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China / D. Wang et al. // Jama. 2020. № 323 (11). R. 1061−1069. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585

6. Classification of the cutaneous manifestations of COVID‐19: a rapid prospective nationwide consensus study in Spain with 375 cases / C. Galván Casa et al. // Br. J. of Dermatology. 2020. № 183 (1). R. 71−77.

7. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China / C. Huang et al. // The Lancet. 2020. № 395 (10223). R. 497−506. doi:10.1016/S0140−6736(20)30183−5

8. Koronavirusnaya infektsiya COVID−19. Ch. 5: Luchevye metody issledovaniya pri COVID−19 i virusnykh pnevmoniyakh / T. N. Trofimova i dr. 2020. URL: http//1spbgmu.ru/images/home/covid1/obuchenie_vrachei

9. Ludvigsson J. F. Systematic review of COVID‐19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults // Acta Paediatrica. 2020. № 109 (6). R. 1088−1095. doi:10.1111/apa.15270

10. Deville J. G., Song E., Ouellette C. P. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID−19): Management in children. 2020. URL: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus−disease−2019−covid−19−considerations−in−children. doi: https://doi.org/10.5222/mmj.2020.77675

11. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China / C. Wu et al. // JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed. 2020.0994

12. Acute pulmonary embolism and COVID−19 pneumonia: a random association? / G. B. Danzi et al. // European Heart J. 2020. Vol. 41 (19). P. 1858−1858. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa254

13. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID−19 / F. A. Klok et al. // Thrombosis Research. 2020. pii:S0049−3848(20)30120−1. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.013

14. Guillain − Barré syndrome associated with SARS−CoV−2 / G. Toscano et al. // New England J. of Medicine. 2020. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009191

15. Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non−severe COVID−19 / I. Thevarajan et al. // Nature Medicine. 2020. Vol. 26 (4). P. 453−455. doi: 10.1038/s41591−020−0819−2

16. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID−19 in Wuhan, China / C. Qin et al. // Infect. Dis. 2020. Mar 12. ciaa248. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa248

Go on Top