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№1' 2020


International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 1, 2020, P. 42−47.



Litovchenko T. A., Sukhonosova O. Yu., Ekzarhova A. I., Olenych V. B.

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine

According to epidemiological studies, it has been determined that from 0,5 to 1,0 % of children have epilepsy. As well it is considered as one of the most common chronic neurological diseases of childhood. Epilepsy is a multi−etiological disease, the clinical course of which is characterized by spontaneous uncontrolled functional disorders arising from hypersynchronous electrical discharges in the cerebral cortex. This study was aimed to investigate the features of clinical manifestations and anamnestic data in children of different ages, suffering from different epilepsy forms. We examined 1,017 patients aged from 3 months to 17 years. All patients were assessed for somatic and neurological status, electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, if necessary the laboratory tests and consulting other specialists were performed. The analysis of findings shows that the most common is symptomatic epilepsy compared to idiopathic and cryptogenic. The prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy increases in early school age and enhances as much as possible in adolescence. In patients with cryptogenic epilepsy, forms with focal onset, generalized and unclassified seizures were identified. Cryptogenic epilepsy was mostly diagnosed in children under 10 years, likely indicating a disruption of physiological connections and morphofunctional immaturity. The symptomatic epilepsy according to the localization of focal disorders was divided into: temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital and multifocal. The major symptoms of epilepsy are observed in primary school and adolescence. In preschool age, the most common is frontal localization of the focus, parietal ; in primary school − temporal, occipital and parietal, in early − multifocal. Etiological factors of symptomatic epilepsy include the CNS congenital malformations, CNS perinatal lesions, traumatic brain injury, neuroinfections etc. Thus, due to the findings we determined the etiological and trigger factors that led to the development of pathological conditions, including epilepsy.

Key words: children, epilepsy, clinic, medical history, etiologic and trigger factors.


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