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CURRENT ISSUE

№1' 2020

NEUROLOGY

International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 1, 2020, P. 48−52.


DOI (https://doi.org/10.37436/2308-5274-2020-1-10)

DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE IN YOUNG PEOPLE. MEDICAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES


Abdullaiev R. Ya., Ibragimova K. M., Mamedov I. H., Abdullaiev R. R.

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine

Degenerative changes of intervertebral discs is a very complicated process as a result of interaction of many factors: genetic, environmental, physical activity. Abnormalities in the vertebrae structure create the preconditions for the overload of the vertebral motor segment, which contributes to the spread of degenerative lesions and increases the risk of spinal injuries. Degenerative disc disease is one of the most common causes of back pain. The process of degeneration begins at a young age and in adulthood it often becomes widespread with a predominance of one or another localization. Methods of medical imaging occupy an important place in diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathologies. Radiography assesses the changes only in bone structures, but does not allow the visualization of soft tissues, which include not only the ligaments of the vertebral motor segment, but also the intervertebral discs. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most effective method for diagnosing degenerative changes in intervertebral discs. Possibilities of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of early stage degenerative disc disease have not been studied enough. There were examined 147 patients aged 18−27 years with clinical and neurological signs of degenerative disease of cervical and lumbar spinal discs. Ultrasonic semiotics showed changes within the pulpal nucleus as an increased echogenicity and displacement back towards the fibrous ring, fibrous ring thinning, which indicated the disc protrusion. In patients with pain in neck and lower back, fragmentary imaging of the fibrous ring and prolapse of the disc contents into the lumen of spinal canal, indicating the development of hernias was found. The presence of herniated discs of cervical and lumbar spine in all cases coincided with the results of magnetic resonance imaging, and protrusion did in 91,4 % of cases. Thus, among medical imaging the ultrasonography is the most accessible and informative method for diagnosing degenerative changes in intervertebral discs of cervical and lumbar spine.

Key words: degenerative disc disease, ultrasonography, cervical and lumbar intervertebral discs.


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