International Medical Journal, Vol. 24., Iss. 2, 2018, P. 61−63.
CURRENT ISSUES IN CLASSIFICATION OF VERTEBROSPINAL INJURY
Children's City Outpatient Hospital № 6, Odesa, Ukraine
Vertebrospinal injury is a serious disorder of the vital functions of the whole body. It accounts for about 15 % of all types of injuries and is characterized by disorders not only of the musculoskeletal and the nervous systems, but also by cardinal changes in all aspects of the victim's life. The author turns attention to the problem and complexity of the qualified diagnosis of vertebrospinal injury, points out the existence of a problem in the scientific investigations. It is indicated that the problem of classification and diagnosis remains relevant for all countries of the world. The article analyzes modern classifications, diagnostic techniques, and also reports the results of the latest research on this issue. In relation to the spinal cord the injuries are divided into three groups: 1) traumatic lesions of the spine without damage to the spinal cord; 2) traumatic lesions of the spinal cord without damage to the spine; 3) traumatic lesions of the spine with damage to the spinal cord. By the nature of the damage to the spine the following can be distinguished: 1) damage to the ligament apparatus; 2) damage to the vertebral bodies (fractures, compression, fragmentation, transverse, longitudinal, explosive fractures, and secretions of closing plates); 3) fractures of the posterior semicircle of the vertebra (arches, articular processes); 4) fractures, dislocations with damage to the connective−articular apparatus, 5) fractures of the bodies and arches with displacement or displacement. Traumatic lesions of the spinal cord manifest in the form of concussion, slaughter or compression of the spina; cord, as well as brainspinal hemorrhage (hematomyelia). Possible strains or ruptures can be divided into closed and open. The classification of the damage to the spine and spinal cord involves the concept of stability and instability, which largely determines the nature of medical tactics. Instability of spine damage is due to violation of anatomical integrity of vertebras, disks, joints and ligament apparatus, at which re−displacement is possible with additional compression of the spinal cord and roots. Instability is most common in rotary lesions, fractures (blast), axial dislocation of vertebrae and damage to the two joints of the vertebral segment. However, in spite of the number of vertebrospinal injury classifications, there is still no uniform classification that fully addresses all variants of the vertebrospinal injury.
Key words: vertebrospinal injury, classification, spinal cord injury.