VARIOUS ASPECTS OF OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine
Increased prevalence of overweight children and adolescents in many countries makes it possible to classify this disease as a non−infectious epidemic. The most common complications of obesity are diabetes, arterial hypertension and digestive system diseases. To study and evaluate the impact of biological, social and hygienic, social and economic and psychological risk factors for children obesity a sociological survey was conducted in 809 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 and their parents. Twenty−one factors with a significant effect on the development of the disease were distinguished. It was revealed that the leading risk factors for overweight were biological and social and hygienic. The main biological factors were family predisposition to overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension heredity. According to the study, the perinatal and postnatal factors have a significant impact on the onset and development of the disease in children, namely the pathological duration of pregnancy, complicated obstetrical anamnesis, the presence of excess body weight and the nutritional features of the child during the first year of life. Daily consumption of high−calorie foods, diet noncompliance and sedentary lifestyle were significant psychological and social and economic factors influencing the development of the disease. Socio− economic factors included the level of education of parents and the number of children in the family, while psychological −− stresses and psychological trauma. Priority preventive measures should be aimed at correcting the regimen, diet and optimizing the motor activity of children and adolescents.
Key words: obesity, excess body weight, risk factors, children and adolescents.