International Medical Journal, Vol. 23., Iss. 2, 2017, P. 60−64.
BREAST CANCER: EPIDEMIOLOGY, RISK FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS
National Center of Oncology, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic
Breast cancer is currently one of the five most common cancers in the world. An important role in its development is played by genetic factors, reproductive system diseases. Heredity factor in breast cancer development constitutes about 5−10 % of all breast carcinomas, and the majority of them are associated with autosomal dominant germline BRCA1 mutations and genes BRCA 2. In 10−20 % of cases the disease is triple negative, in which the tumor is histologically poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma. It is characterized by an aggressive course, early appearance of visceral metastases and, consequently, poor prognosis. The main method of early diagnosis of breast cancer is screening ultrasound and X−ray mammography. Microcalcifications of cluster forms are considered a pathognomonic sign of carcinoma. Determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors has a practical importance in breast carcinoma. When estrogen receptor is positive, the hormonal therapy efficiency exceeds 70 %, while at negative −− no more than 10 %. Among the most important prognostic factors are the size and location of the tumor; nature of regional lymph nodes; stage of the disease; histological type of tumor; degree of the tumor differentiation; the presence of hormone receptors in the tumor; the presence of menstruation in women of reproductive age.
Key words: breast cancer, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis.