International Medical Journal, Vol. 22., Iss. 1, 2016, P. 87−97.
PHARMACOGENOMICS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS, GENETIC THERAPY AGAINST HIV INFECTION AND GENOME EDITION
Institute of Medicobiological Problems, PFUR, Moscow, Russian Federation,
MedFarmOtkrytie LTD, Moscow, Russian Federation, N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic controlled, although incurable disease. This continuous life−long and expensive therapy is associated with long−term side effects and emergence of resistant strains of the virus. Three drugs are commonly prescribed: two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with a protease inhibitor drug or a drug with a non−nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Such schemes can effectively suppress the virus, but there are some drawbacks. Two ways of using antiretroviral drugs pharmacogenomics were investigated to optimize the treatment of HIV infection. Anti−HIV agents based on any type of RNA (ribozyme, antisense RNA, RNA aptamers, RNA decoys, small interfering RNA) and protein agents −− RevM10, intracellular antibodies and intrakines were described. Recombinant protein inhibitors can be expressed using the retroviral or lentiviral vectors providing a convenient target for development of drugs based on gene therapy, which allows entrance of transgenes expressing anti−HIV agents in the cells of the patient affecting the life cycle of the virus. Gene therapy for HIV infection has attracted many scientists, pharmacists and pharmacologists, as the potential to provide effective treatment and even cure of this disease.
Key words: phramocogenomics, anti−HIV agents, genetic therapy, HIV infections.