International Medical Journal, Vol. 22., Iss. 1, 2016, P. 68−72.
HERITARY POLYNEUROPATHY AS A FACTOR OF STATOKINETIC DISORDERS IN EARLY-AGE CHILDREN
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine
Pathology of the peripheral nervous system is quite frequent in the structure of pathology early childhood, affecting child statokinetic state, however not always promptly diagnosed, adequately assessed and taken into account while adminestering therapy and rehabilitation of children. The most frequent form of peripheral nervous system lesions in all age groups is polyneuropathy, which at the present stage is treated as a disease of the whole organism caused by the pathological process at the level of the peripheral nerves. Genetic heterogeneity of hereditary motor sensory polyneuropathies was determined. The form with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X−recessive concatenated inheritance types was described. Every group of hereditary motor sensory polyneuropathies is characterized by the triad of main clinical symptoms: atrophy of distal sections of the hands and feet with their deformation, disorders of sensation in the area of the atrophied muscles, Hypo− or areflexia of upper and lower limb muscles. On the basis of electrophysiological data hereditary motor−sensory polyneuropathy are divided into two basic types: demyelinating (type 1) and axonal (type 2). Type 1 motor−sensory neuropathy is characterized by reduced impulse conduction velocity in the peripheral nerves, more pronounced in small and tibial nerves (on the feet), less in the median and ulnar nerves (in the arms). Type 2 disease is characterized by slightly reduced or normal values of impulse conduction velocity (more than 45 MPs to the median nerve). In early childhood the most common hereditary motor−sensory polyneuropathy types are 1, 2, and 3.
Key words: hereditary motor−sensory polyneuropathy, statokinetic disorders, demyelination, axonal damage.