ARCHIVEOBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
International Medical Journal, Vol. 20., Iss. 2, 2014, P. 50−55.
TERATOGENIC FACTORS, TOXICOLOGY AND FETAL MALFORMATION
Kharkiv Regional Clinical Perinatal Centre
Teratogenesis is development of fetal anomaly at unfavorable influence of the environment or as a result of diseases, which leads to abortions in 60% of cases in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. And birth of children with pathology. The influence of teratogenic factors has its peculiarities: dose dependence, differences associated with metabolism, changes in the sensitivity of the fetus to the influence depending on the term of gestation. Main defects of intrauterine development are anomalies of the central nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, locomotor systems. Teratogenic factors are chemical, biological, physical components and their combinations. The most common are drugs (the WHO recommendations distinguish 5 categories of drugs by their teratogenicity), chemicals, infections, metabolic disorders and harmful habits of the pregnant. They meet the following criteria: association between the effect of the factor and formation of development defect must be proven; epidemiological factors prove this association; the effect of the damaging factor coincides with the critical development periods of the embryo and fetus; characteristic development defects are formed rarely, if the damaging factor effect is not frequent. In all cases of intrauterine defects development, consultations of a pediatric surgeon, pediatric neurologist, genetic, neonatologist, pediatrician and anesthesiologist are necessary to solve the question of management of pregnancy, delivery and possible treatment of the newborn (including surgery).
Key words: toxicology, fetus, teratogenesis, malformations, medications.