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№2' 2021


International Medical Journal, Vol. 27., Iss. 2, 2021, P. 37−42.



Usenko O. Yu., Sydiuk A. V., Sydiuk O. E., Klimas A. S., Savenko G. Yu., Teslia O. T.

SI Shalimov National Institute of Surgery and Transplantology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Neoplasms of the mediastinum are located in a dangerous anatomical area that contains important vascular structures, heart, nerves and plexuses. The number of the mediastinum tumors and cysts is 0.5−3.0 % of the total neoplasia. Among the age structure of the population, the mediastinal neoplasms are most common among people of working age. Due to the frequent long−term asymptomatic course, the diagnosis of tumors is often caused by compression of the mediastinal organs, which occurs in large tumors. In world practice, over the past decade, thoracoscopic surgery has become the method of choice among the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. In 2018−2020 at the O.O. Shalimov National Institute of Surgery and Transplantology (Kyiv) 38 patients with mediastinal neoplasia were treated. All patients underwent removal of tumors by thoracoscopic access. Three clinical examples are provided. Patients were divided into groups depending on the location of tumors and analyzed for surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors, the prevalence of the latter by age and sex of the patient, tumor size and presence of concomitant pathology. In most cases, it was a neoplasia of the anterior mediastinum. Patients underwent the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with intravenous contrast, video esophagogastroduodenoscopy, spirography, ultrasound of the heart, bronchoscopy. Due to the reduction of trauma and rapid post−surgery rehabilitation, the thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of mediastinal tumors occupies a key place among other minimally invasive and open methods of surgery. This tactics helps to reduce the duration of surgery, diminish the number of post−surgery complications, and also it plays an important role in improving the treatment outcomes in the patients with mediastinal tumors.

Key words: mediastinum, mediastinal tumors, thoracoscopic surgery.


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