International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 3, 2020, P. 5−9.
CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF ADIPOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
This review is devoted to the analysis of the role of adipokines in formation of pathological changes in renal function and structure. The patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Currently, the role of systemic hormonal and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of the kidneys is growing. A promising area of pathogenetic prevention and treatment of kidney disease is an interdisciplinary approach, whereat the adipokine imbalance is of particular interest. Adipose tissue and its messengers, adipokines, are known to be highly associated with kidney disease. Adipocytes are metabolically active cells, producing the signaling lipids, metabolites and protein factors, i.e. adipokines. The interaction of adipose tissue with the kidney is called the adipose kidney axis, being important for the normal functioning of the body, as well as its response to an injury. It has a strong therapeutic potential in respect of the growing rates of chronic kidney disease. Adipocyte hypertrophy is often accompanied by the development of tissue fibrosis, hypoxia, and secretion of pro−inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin, which triggers the cell inflammation). Dysfunction of adipose tissue contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease at the local and systemic levels. Thus, for the early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease into the diagnostic program, in addition to the generally accepted indices, the determination of adipokines: for example, serum leptin, adiponectin, omentin, visfatin, microalbuminuria, blood lipid spectrum, intrarenal and functional status of the kidneys with the assessment of functional renal reserve is recommended to be included. Early detection of the disease, new approaches to its diagnosis and treatment can help in reducing the risk of a high incidence and mortality from renal disease.
Key words: chronic kidney disease, nephropathy, adipokines, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, omentin.
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