International Medical Journal, Vol. 26., Iss. 1, 2020, P. 16−18.
CHANGES IN SMALL INTESTINE MICROFLORA IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION
State Institution "V. T. Zaitsev Institute of General and Emergency Surgery of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kharkiv, Ukraine
Among urgent surgical diseases of abdominal cavity, an acute intestinal obstruction is the most difficult to be diagnosed and treated. Leading factor, determining the development of pathophysiological processes is considered to be the progressive manifestations of enteric insufficiency syndrome, resulting in intestinal barrier impairment, negative changes in ecology of intestinal flora, increased endotoxins. To identify the small intestine microflora in acute intestinal obstruction and determine the role of dysbiotic disorders in clinical manifestations of main pathological process, a study was conducted in 60 patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. The small intestine has a relatively rare microflora, consisting mainly of gram−positive facultative aerobic microorganisms, streptococci, lactobacilli. The distal ileum in nearly 30−55 % of healthy people contains scanty microflora, and yet the flora of this area differs from the microbial population of the higher gastrointestinal tract due to higher concentration of gram−negative bacteria. Optional−anaerobic coliform bacilli, anaerobic bifidobacteria and fusobacteria, bacteroids, the number of which starts exceeding the one of gram−positive species, are presented in significant quantities. Distal to the ileocecal valve there are significant changes in the microflora quantitative and species composition. Obligatory anaerobic bacteria become the predominant part of microflora, exceeding the number of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The bacterial flora in different parts of gastrointestinal tract has its own specifics and is quite constant, as a result of the interaction of many factors, regulating the bacterial population in small intestine. The most important among them are: acidity of gastric juice, normal peristaltic activity of the intestine, bacterial interactions and immune mechanisms. Disorders of the intestine motor and evacuation function with its obstruction lead to slow passage of the chyme and contamination of the upper gastrointestinal tract with new types of microbes. There is a syndrome of small intestine excessive colonization, which means an increased concentration of bacterial populations in it, similar in species composition to the colon microflora. Pathological intra−intestinal contents become a source of endogenous infection and re−infection of the patient, leads to internal digestive disorders, which is manifested by syndrome of malabsorption of proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins.
Key words: acute intestinal obstruction, small intestinal microflora, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, intestinal biocenosis.
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