Previous Next


№3' 2019


International Medical Journal, Vol. 25., Iss. 3, 2019, P. 38−43.



Andrii Serhiiovych Lutskyi

Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine

The formation of pinopods occurring in the middle of the luteal phase is a major indicator of the quality of the endometrium. The study is aimed at studying the peculiarities of pinopod formation in the endometrium, depending on the method of maintaining the luteal phase in the treatment of infertility by means of in vitro fertilization. To this end, 50 women being the oocyte donors were examined. They were subdivided into five subgroups depending on the luteal phase support scheme. On the 5th day after receiving oocytes, women underwent endometrial tube biopsy to scan electron microscopy and determine foam events in the endometrium. It has been proven that in patients receiving highly purified progesterone for subcutaneous administration of 25 mg (1 ml) once a day and 90 mg of intra−vaginal progesterone as a gel, normal development of pinopods was observed in 60.0 % of cases. This scheme proved to be the most effective. Therefore, for the success of extracorporeal fertilization, the process of forming pinopods, which depends on the scheme of maintaining the luteal phase of the cycle, is important. It is noted that the common negative features in the formation of pinopods in women during the period of "implantation windows" is a decrease in the number of pinopod events, an increase in the number of foam events, the presence of areas of pinopod absence, mosaicism of their sizes, forms and stages of development.

Key words: pinopods, luteal phase support, endometrium, in vitro fertilization.


1. Mityurina E. V. Prichiny povtornykh neudach implantatsii v programme ekstrakorporal'nogo oplodotvoreniya / E. V. Mityurina, S. G. Perminova, T. S. Amyan // Akusherstvo i ginekologiya.− 2016.− № 11.− S. 34−40.

2. Babenko І. V. Vikoristannya modifіkovanogo prirodnogo tsiklu v dopomіzhnikh reproduktivnikh tekhnologіyakh u patsієntіv іz neplіdnіstyu і znizhenim yaєchnikovim rezervom / І. V. Babenko // Zb. nauk. pr. Asotsіatsії akusherіv−gіnekologіv Ukraїni: tezi konf.− K.: Polіgrafіya plyus, 2013.− S. 18−19.

3. Siklosi G. S. Fundamental role of folliculo−luteal function in recurrent miscarriage / G. S. Siklosi, F. G. Banhidy, N. Acs // Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.− 2012.− № 286 (5).− R. 1299−1305.

4. A prospective randomized comporison of intramuscular or intravaginal natural progesterone as a luteal phase and early pregnancy supplement / J. Smitz, P. Devroey, Faguer [et al.] // Human Reproduction.− 1992.− № 7.− R. 168−175.

5. Fatemi H. M. The luteal phase after 3 decades of IVF:what do we know? / H. M. Fatemi // Reprod. Biomed. Online.− 2009.− Vol. 19.− P. 4331.

6. Targeted drug delivery in gynaecology: the first uterin pass effect / C. Bulletti, D. de Ziegler, C. Flamigni [et al.] // Human Reproduction.− 1997.− Vol. 12.− P. 1073−1079.

7. The luteal phase after GnRH−agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives / P. Humaidan, E. G. Papanikolaou, D. Kyrou [et al.] // Reprod. Biomed. Online.− 2012.− Vol. 24, № 2.− P. 134−141.

8. Dmitrovic R. Endometrial growth in early pregnancy after IVF/ET / R. Dmitrovic, V. Vlaisavljevic, D. Ivankovis // J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.− 2008.− Vol. 25, № 9.− P. 453−459.

9. Ludwig M. Evaluathion of an optimal luteal phase support protocol in IVF / M. Ludwig, K. Diedrich // Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica.− 2001.− № 80.− R. 452−466.

10. Crinon 8 % vaginal progesterone gel results in lower embryonic implantation efficiency after in vitro fertilization−embryo transfer / M. A. Damario, V. T.G oudas, D. R. Session [et al.] // Fertility and Sterility.− 1999.− Vol. 72.− P. 830−836.

Go on Top